Journal Articles:

  1. Jing Han, Kathleen Koenig, Lili Cui, Joseph Fritchman, Dan Li, Wanyi Sun, Zhao Fu, and Lei Bao, (2016) Experimental Validation of the Half-Length Force Concept Inventory, Physical Review Physics Education Research, 12, 020122.
  2. Shaona Zhou, Jing Han, Kathleen Koenig, Amy Raplinger, Yuan Pi, Dan Li, Hua Xiao, Zhao Fu, Lei Bao, (2016) Assessment of Scientific Reasoning: the Effects of Task Context, Data, and Design on Student Reasoning in Control of Variables, Thinking Skills and Creativity, 19, 175–187.
  3. Han, J., Bao, L., Chen, L., Cai, T., Pi, Y., Zhou, S., Tu, Y., & Koenig, K., (2015) Dividing the Force Concept Inventory into Two Equivalent Half-Length Tests, Physical Review Physics Education Research, 11, 010112.
  4. Xie, L. and Bao, L. (2013) Study on thinking framework construction based on Bayesian probability, China Electric Power Education, 35, 205-216.
  5. Bao, L., Kim, Y., Raplinger, A., Han, J., & Koenig, K. (2013). Affective Factors in STEM Learning and Scientific Inquiry: Assessment of Cognitive Conflict and Anxiety, Research in Education, Assessment, and Learning, 4 (1), 1-52.
  6. Koenig, K., Schen, M., & Bao, L., “Explicitly Targeting Pre-service Teacher Scientific Reasoning Abilities and Understanding of Nature of Science through an Introductory Science Course,” Science Educator, 21, no. 2, 1-9 (2012).
  7. Koenig, K., Schen, M., Edwards, M. & Bao, L., “Addressing STEM Retention through a Scientific Thought and Methods Course,” Journal of College Science Teaching, 41, no. 4, 23-29 (2012).
  8. James Brogerg & Lei Bao, “The Impact of Assessment Format on Student and Evaluator Response in Physics Assessment,” Research in Education Assessment and Learning, 3 (2), 57-68, (2012)
  9. Aaron Adair and Lei Bao, “Project-Based Learning: Theory, Impact, and Effective Implementation,” Research in Education Assessment and Learning, 3 (1), 6-21, (2012)
  10. Li Chen, Jing Han, Jing Wang, Yan Tu, and Lei Bao, “Comparisons of Item Response Theory Algorithms on Force Concept Inventory,” Research in Education Assessment and Learning, 2 (02), 26-34, (2011).
  11. Shaona Zhou, Jing Han, Nathaniel Pelz, Xiaojun Wang, Liangyu Peng, Hua Xiao, Lei Bao, Inquiry Style Interactive Virtual Experiments: A Case on Circular Motion, European Journal of Physics, 32, 1597-1606, (2011).
  12. Lin Ding, Neville Reay, Albert Lee, and Lei Bao, Exploring the role of conceptual scaffolding in solving synthesis problems, Phys. Rev. ST Physics Ed. Research 7, 020109 (2011).
  13. Albert Lee, Lin Ding, N. W. Reay, and Lei Bao, “Single-Concept Clicker Question Sequences,” Physics Teacher,49 (6) p385-389, (2011) .
  14. Jing Wang and Lei Bao, “Analyzing Force Concept Inventory with Item Response Theory,” Am. J. Phys., 78 (10), 1064-1070 (2010).
  15. Lei Bao, Tianfan Cai, Kathy Koenig, Kai Fang, Jing Han, Jing Wang, Qing Liu, Lin Ding, Lili Cui, Ying Luo, Yufeng Wang, Lieming Li, Nianle Wu, “Learning and Scientific Reasoning”, Science, 323. no. 5914, pp. 586 – 587 (2009).
  16. Lei Bao, Kai Fang, Tianfang Cai, Jing Wang, Lijia Yang, Lili Cui, Jing Han, Lin Ding, and Ying Luo “Learning of Content Knowledge and Development of Scientific Reasoning Ability: A Cross Culture Comparison,” J. Phys., 77 (12), 1118-1123 (2009).
  17. Lin Ding, Neville W. Reay, Albert Lee and Lei Bao, “Are we asking the right questions? Validating clicker question sequences through student interviews,” J. Phys., 77 (7), 643-650 (2009).
  18. Bao, S. Stonebraker, and H. Sadaghiani, “A Flexible Homework System,” Am. J. Phys., 76 (9), 878-881 (2008).
  19. Lin Ding, Neville W. Reay, Albert Lee and Lei Bao, “The effects of testing conditions on conceptual survey results,” Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 4, 010112 (2008).
  20. David E. Pritchard, Young-Jin Lee and Lei Bao, “Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies,” Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 4, 010109 (2008)
  21. W. Reay, P. Li, and L. Bao, “Testing a New Voting Machine Methodology,” Am. J. Phys. 76 (2) 171-178 (2008).
  22. Bao and E. F. Redish, “Model Analysis: Assessing the Dynamics of Student Learning,” Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 2, 010103 (2006).
  23. Bao, “Theoretical Comparison of Average Normalized Gain Calculations,” Am. J. Phys. 74 (10) 917-922 (2006).
  24. Gyoungho Lee, Jongho Shin, Jiyeon Park, Sangho Song, Yeonsoo Kim, Lei Bao, “An Integrated Theoretical Structure of Mental Models in Science Education: Students’ ideas of the circular motion,” Korea Assoc Res. Sci. Edu. 25-6, 698-709 (2005).
  25. C. Wittmann, J. T. Morgan, and L. Bao, “Addressing student models of energy loss in quantum tunneling,” Eur. J. Phys. 26 939-950 (2005). Chosen for “Highlights of 2005” by the journal.
  26. W. Reay, L. Bao, P. Li, R. Warnakulasooriya and G. Baugh, “Toward an effective use of voting machines in physics lectures,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 554 (2005)
  27. Bao and E. F. Redish, “Understanding probabilistic interpretations of physical systems: A pre-requisite to learning quantum physics”, Am. J. Phys. 70 (3), 210-217, (2002)
  28. Bao, K. Hogg, and D. Zollman, “Model Analysis of Fine Structures of Student Models: An Example with Newton’s Third Law,” Am. J. Phys. 70 (7), 766-778 (2002).
  29. Bao and E. F. Redish, “Concentration Analysis: A Quantitative Assessment of Student States,” PERS of Am. J. Phys. 69 (7), S45-53, (2001).

Selected Media and News Coverage:

  • Nature Physics: Science education: Lessons to be learned, Vol.6, 6, 2010.
  • Science News: Feature: Think Like a Scientist, Vol.175 #13 (p. 20), 06/20, 2009.
  • NPR: Can Scientific Reasoning Be Taught? 1/30, 2009
  • NPR Science Friday: Learning Facts vs. Learning to Reason. 1/30, 2009
  • The Columbus Dispatch: Study: Chinese students know more science facts than U.S. counterparts, 1/29, 2009.
  • China Daily: Science students lack ability to reason 1/30, 2009.
  • Inside Higher Ed: Blinding Them with Science 1/30, 2009

Book Chapter:

  1. Bao and E. F. Redish, “Educational Assessment and Underlying Models of Cognition” In The Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning In Higher Education: The Contributions Of Research Universities , Ed. William E. Becker & Moya L. Andrews, pp 221-264, Indiana University Press, 2004.

Peer Reviewed Conference Proceedings:

  1. Koenig, K., Wood, K., & Bao, L. (2016). Progression of student abilities in control of variables in an introductory physics lab course. NSF Envisioning the Future of Undergraduate STEM Education: Research and Practice Symposium Proceedings.
  2. Koenig, K. & Bao, L. (April 2013). Impacting the Scientific Reasoning Abilities of STEM Majors through an Introductory Physics Laboratory Course. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Puerto Rico.
  3. Liangyu peng, Lei Bao, Manchi Huan. Research of Generalized Lorenz System Family and Chua’s Circuit Based on Simulink. 2011 International Conference on Computers, Communications, Control and Automation (CCCA 2011). Hong Kong, China, February 20-21, 2011. Volume I: 417-420. (IEEE publication)
  4. Liangyu peng, Lei Bao, Manchi Huan. The Study of Removing Image Noise with Median Filter and Wavelet Transform. 2011 International Conference on Computers, Communications, Control and Automation (CCCA 2011). Hong Kong, China, February 20-21, 2011. Volume I: 421-424. (IEEE publication)
  5. Liangyu peng, Lei Bao. Application of Matlab/Simulink and Orcad/PSpice Software in Theory of Circuits. 2010 International Conference on Broadcast Technology and Multimedia Communication (BTMC 2010), 2010 Second Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE 2010). Chongqing, China, December 13-14, 2010. Volume III: 514-517. (IEEE publication)
  6. Scott Zollinger, Patti Brosnan, Diana B. Erchick, and Lei Bao, “Mathematics Coaching: Impact on Student Proficiency Levels After One Year of Participation”, North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME-NA), (2010).
  7. Ding, N. W. Reay, A. Heckler, and L. Bao, “Sustained effects of solving conceptually-scaffolded synthesis problems”, PERC Proceedings (2010).
  8. Lin Ding, Neville Reay, Albert Lee and Lei Bao, “Using Conceptual Scaffolding to Foster Effective Problem Solving” PERC proceedings (2009).
  9. Homeyra R. Sadaghiani and Lei Bao, “Student Difficulties in Understanding Probability in Quantum Mechanics” PERC proceedings (Aug. 2005).
  10. Yeounsoo Kim, Lei Bao and Omer Acar, “Students’ Cognitive Conflict and Conceptual Change in a PBI Class,” PERC proceedings (Aug. 2005).
  11. Yeounsoo Kim and Lei Bao, “Development of an Instrument for Evaluating Anxiety Caused by Cognitive Conflict,” PERC proceedings (Aug. 2004).
  12. Gyoungho Lee, Jiyeon Park, Yeounsoo Kim and Lei Bao, “Alternative Conceptions, Memory & Mental Model in Physics Education,” PERC proceedings (Aug. 2004).
  13. Dedra Demaree, Stephen Stonebraker, Wenhui Zhao and Lei Bao, “Virtual Reality Experiments in Introductory Physics Laboratories,” PERC proceedings (Aug. 2004).
  14. Rasil Warnakulasooriya and Lei Bao, “Procedural Rules in Students’ Reasoning,” PERC proceedings July 2003.
  15. Neville W. Reay, Lei Bao, Gordon Baugh and Rasil Warnakulasooriya, “Business-Style” Group Work in a Freshman Engineering Honors Class,” PERC proceedings July 2003.
  16. Florin Bocaneala and Lei Bao, “Neural Network Modeling for Physics Learning: A Case on E&M,” PERC proceedings July 2003.
  17. Homeyra Sadaghiani and Lei Bao, “Lecture Demonstrations in Modern Physics: Quality vs. Quantity,” PERC proceedings July 2003.
  18. Homeyra R. Sadaghiani and Lei Bao, “Immediate Informative Feedback Using a New Homework System,” PERC proceedings 2002.
  19. Keith Oliver and Lei Bao, “Student Resources in Quantum Mechanics, or Why Students Need Meta Resources,” PERC proceedings 2002.
  20. Gyoungho Lee and Lei Bao, “Context Map: A Method to Represent The Interactions Between Students’ Learning and Multiple Context Factors,” PERC proceedings 2002.
  21. Rasil Warnakulasooriya and Lei Bao, “Toward a Model-Based Diagnostic Instrument in Electricity and Magnetism – An Example,” PERC proceedings 2002.
  22. Gyoungho Lee and L. Bao, “Graduate and undergraduate students’ views on learning and teaching physics,” PERC proceedings, July 2001.
  23. Warnakulasooriya and L. Bao, “Students’ understanding of Electricity and Magnetism for the development of a model based diagnostic test,” PERC proceedings, July 2001.
  24. Richard N. Steinberg., Michael. C. Wittmann, Lei Bao, and Edward F. Redish, “The Influence of Student Understanding of Classical Physics When Learning Quantum Mechanics,” Research on the Teaching and Learning of Quantum Science, NARST Annual Meeting, Boston, March, 1999. Http://
  25. Zhonghan Woo, Lei Bao, Wang Ling and Yuan Chunwei, “AFM Analysis on the Bioelectric Property of Fish Scale Plates,” The Eighth Symposium on Electrets, Paris, Sept., 1994.
  26. Zhonghan Woo, Lei Bao, et al, “Electrostatic Technology and Clean Engineering,” International Conference on Air and Water Cleaning Technology, China, June, 1993.
  27. Lei Bao, Yiming Ling, “Ozone Synthesis with UV and Silent Discharge,” The Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasmas Science and Technology, China, Sept. 1992.

Invited Review Paper:

  1. Lei Bao and ZuRen Wu, “Physics Education in China: From Past to Future,” AAPT Interactions, 38 (1), 24-25, (2008).